Visitors stand in a long line to enter the Santuario de Chimayo, Visitors stand in a long line to enter the Santuario de Chimayo, an historic adobe and wooden chapel still in use today in Chimayo, NM. The historic chapel is known as the "Lourdes of America," since it is believed by many people to have healing powers. TPL helped protect the Santuario's serene backdrop by conserving and transferring to Santa Fe County 17 acres of pasture behind the chapel. Funding for the project came from the county's $8 million bond measure of November 2000. Rio Arriba County, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, church, 2006, NM, Chimayo, Heritage Lands, Rio Arriba, Chimayo, Santuario de Chimayo, Historic Building, Don J. Usner
Don J. Usner

Earthly miracles: preserving a pilgrimage in New Mexico

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The road to the village of Chimayo winds through the foothills of New Mexico’s Sangre de Cristo Mountains. It’s usually a quiet highway, linking this slow-paced village of adobe houses and rickety toolsheds with the city of Santa Fe 30 miles to the south.

But once a year, in the week before Easter, tens of thousands of people converge on this route—journeying on foot. Their destination is the Santuario de Chimayo, a humble adobe chapel known to some Catholics as the “Lourdes of America.” Inside, pilgrims visit a shrine and gather sandy soil from the floor of a tiny room adjacent to the chapel: the earth here is said to promote healing, even of terminal diseases and permanent disabilities.

Twenty years ago, the well-tended potrero­—or pasture—that formed the backdrop to the chapel was at risk. A developer had approached Modesto Vigil, a lifelong Chimayo farmer who owned the property, with a proposal to build a mobile home park behind the santuario. Instead, the Vigil family worked with The Trust for Public Land to protect the pasture, which is now owned by the County of Santa Fe and preserved as open space.

nm_chimayo_07212009_07.jpgBefore the santuario was built in the early 1800s, these peacful potreros were a place of healing for the pueblo people who'd lived in the area for millennia. Photo credit: Don Usner

“Modesto was an artist. He cared for his potrero with the deep wisdom he’d inherited from countless generations of his family who’d farmed the land before him, and did a superb job,” says Don Usner, a writer, photographer, and Chimayo’s unofficial local historian. Cut by a clear-flowing stream and shaded by towering cottonwoods, the potrero is more than picturesque. “It’s so integral to the experience of the santuario,” Usner says, “as much for pilgrims as for lifelong residents who go to mass at the chapel every week.”

Some say the pilgrimage to Chimayo began in the late 1940s, when a handful of World War II veterans and their families made the trek on Good Friday to grieve for their fallen comrades and show gratitude for their own safe return. Today, 60,000 people of many different faiths and traditions walk to Chimayo during Easter week, making it the largest ritual pilgrimage in the United States.

Most of the pilgrims begin their journey in Santa Fe, walking 30 miles to reach Chimayo. Some come all the way from Albuquerque or Taos, more than 90 miles away, while others may only be able to walk the final hundred yards. The Department of Transportation blocks off a lane of the highway to protect pilgrims from traffic, and locals along the route offer pilgrims food, water, and blessings.

Pilgrims on the highway"People walk all the way from Albuquerque, from Taos, from Truchas, from Cordova," a pilgrim named Orlando Romero told NPR. Romero, in his late 60s, seeks "blessings for my family, the blessings that this place provides."Photo credit: Flickr user Larry Lamsa

The santuario itself is an adobe structure that dates to about 1813. It was built by one of Usner’s ancestors, Bernardo Abeyta, who led a band of Catholic devotees known as Los Penitentes. According to legend, Abeyta was strolling through the pastures one evening when he saw a light radiating from the dirt. He dug toward the light and uncovered a glowing crucifix, and decided to build a chapel on the site.

“In Bernardo’s letters about the chapel, he never mentioned a miraculous apparition,” says Usner. “He did say that it was a holy site long recognized by the Tewa people, and that the healing dirt legend was established long before Los Penitentes arrived. It seemed like the right place to build a church.”

Today, the chapel and its pastoral setting still captivate visitors. Walls in the santuario are covered with notes offering praise and asking for healing for loved ones. A rack holds crutches left behind by pilgrims as a statement on miraculous healing. But for many, the value of the pilgrimage is in the journey. “The act of pilgrimage is highly personalized today. Every person who undertakes it has their own reasons,” says Usner.

nm_chimayo_05172006_009.jpgPilgrims leave notes, offerings, and even crutches behind at Chimayo, testaments to faith and gratitude.Photo credit: Don Usner

He says for Chimayo residents, the santuario is a bright star in the constellation of a unique local culture that’s thriving, despite challenges.

“Chimayo is one of the most extreme, unusual, quintessential New Mexico places,” says Usner. Many of the town’s 800 residents can trace their heritage back to the Tewa pueblo people and the Spanish colonists who arrived in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in the early 1600s. Today, locals practice traditional crafts like weaving, along with more contemporary art forms like lowriding—restoring old cars and painting them with elaborate, colorful designs. Foodies throughout the Southwest seek out the Chimayo chili, a kind of pepper that only grows here, for its smoky, sun-dried heat. Chimayo isn’t far from modern Santa Fe, but as Usner puts it, “it’s another culture entirely.”

“Chimayo gets a bad rap sometimes. Outsiders associate it with drug use, crime, and poverty,” says Usner. “So to have this sanctuary, in such a beautiful setting, and a meaningful tradition that’s admired by the outside world—it’s a point of pride. It can’t be overstated how important it is to remember that, hang on to it, and keep it intact.”


Bob Bainbridge
I do not believe in miracles, but I love Chimayo. Protecting the view was important. I especially like the stone arches beside the river.
Another example of the critical work of TPL in preserving critical historical landscapes. The importance of this work cannot be overemphasized.
We visited Chimayo many years ago and never forgot it. Nothing should be allowed to desecrate this site. Whether one believes or not, it's a place that should be set aside for contemplation and meditation.
Lynn Adams
Our administrators do not seem to understand that protecting the "view-shed" around our historic places is as important as protecting the historic or sacred place itself.
Debbie Sinclair
While visiting Chimayo a feeling of peace always comes over me, such a spiritual place that touches my soul. Chimayo holds so much meaning as a holy place for so many and should never be desecrated.
We need public lands for the public. Does everywhere have to be developed?
Ruth Dimmitt
I visited this sacred place almost 60 years ago and can remember the feeling of spiritual healing confirming that the indigenous spirits still abide. We are ONE in the spirit. Healing our diseased culture requires courage, peace and love.
Susan Beltran
Traditions need to be honored and protected in this country, or else we have nothing but $$$$ for our soul..
A wond'rous space confounds reasons
Michael Amescua
Was this land also stolen from the Indians by Catholics?
Gail Miller
Sacred lands/places mean just that... sacred...whether it's sacred to you or someone else. Why do we have to sacrifice every last bit land, ocean, whatever to get more money. It's just ridiculous. To some, nothing else seems to have value anymore. We must stand together for beauty...for decency , integrity, freedom... and for Mother Earth.
Nani Barnes
The spiritual and historical ambience of Chimayo should never be threatened by development of any kind. This one of a kind, sacred place holds the souls of the past and hope for the future! You feel so close to God when you walk through it’s doors! Please protect and preserve this land for all.
Grace Morgan
I visited the site over 20 years ago and the experience never left me. It has a quality of peace and healing. I felt the warmth of compassion in the room. Praying for it to be left alone to be protected. Also action is necessary... the voices of their ancestors need to be heard.

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