What is now Zion National Park was named for the biblical city of David by Mormon settlers in the 1860s, a tribute to the awe-inspiring landscape. This spectacular collection of massive sandstone canyons and cliffs topped by templelike domes and buttes also reflects the connotations of the word zion: highest point, holy place, utopia, refuge. The park’s vertiginous topography, carved from 2,000-footthick layers of Navajo sandstone by the Virgin River, has provided a refuge in the desert for humans as far back as 9,000 BCE and shelters Utah’s greatest diversity of wild plants and animals.
Today, this protected land is threatened: Zion National Park’s 229 square miles of plateaus, domes, and canyons host 5 million visitors a year, more than either Yellowstone or the Grand Canyon—it is the second most visited national park in the U.S. Its very popularity makes Zion vulnerable to development from inside and outside park boundaries, not to mention complicating access to its iconic trails.
To grasp why Zion is vulnerable we must understand its unique history. Utah’s oldest national park was originally established as Mukuntuweap National Monument by President Taft in 1909 (the name is thought to be Paiute for “straight canyon”). In 1919, Congress enlarged the national monument and renamed it Zion National Park. In 1956, the neighboring Zion National Monument was appended to it, enlarging the park yet again. That redrawing of boundaries created a national park with an unusually high number of inholdings, chunks of private land islanded within the official boundaries, including more than 30 private parcels totaling nearly 3,500 acres.
As southern Utah’s population has exploded, both inholdings and private land around the park have become valuable. St. George, the largest nearby town, was home to around 5,000 people in the 1950s; its population is over 95,000 today. That growth, plus an uptick in visitors, has created conflicts with access to the park from outside and development from inside.
“I love knowing that there are people who care about Zion enough to put up a lot of resources to protect it.” –Cassity Bromley, head of resource management and research at Zion National Park
This is where Trust for Public Land comes in, using its real estate savvy and old-fashioned persistence to help keep this very special national park intact biologically and accessible to millions of visitors. It does so by purchasing inholdings within park boundaries and conserving land adjacent to the park to enhance public access and limit incompatible development.
The process involves patience and persistence, developing relationships with landowners, cultivating trust, working with willing sellers, engaging in due diligence—including environmental surveys—to make sure each property is free of environmental issues, and having funding available for the purchase and transfer of land.
The payoff: TPL’s work is critical to keeping Zion accessible to visitors and maintaining healthy and unfragmented ecosystems, says Cassity Bromley, the park’s head of resource management and research. “Animals don’t recognize boundaries,” she adds.
“The key thing for me is having a partner we can work with when opportunities come up. I love knowing that there are people who care about Zion enough to put up a lot of resources to protect it.” In other words, people (and organizations) who are helping keep Zion the refuge it has always been—for humans and its unique wildlife and plants. Scroll down to glimpse some of Zion’s most spectacular and iconic places: